MODULE 1: THE SUBSTANCE EARTH

a few. 1 . one particular: Elements in Earth can be found mostly as compounds because of interactions with the atomic level * Note that matter is made of particles that are continuously going and communicating Matter: anything that has mass and uses up space. Exists in 3 different states: solid (s), liquid (l) and gas (g) The Particle Theory: " All matter consists of small , indivisible particles called atoms which can be continuously moving” | Solid| Liquid| Gas

Particle Position| Carefully packed. Vibrations only. | Less carefully packed. Vibrations and snel. | Broadly spread. Fast translation. | Volume| Particular volume| Particular volume| Takes the shape and volume of box. | Shape| Definite shape| Takes the form of the box. | | Compressibility| Negligible compressibility. | Negligible compressibility| High compressibility.

1 . 1 ) 2 The living and nonliving pieces of the earth consist of mixtures 2. Identify the between factors, compounds and mixtures when it comes to particle theory The Molecule Theory: " All subject is made up of small , and indivisible debris called atoms that are continuously moving” Elements: simplest and pure compound consisting of same type of atom. Cannot be deconstructed by normal physical and chemical means E. g. H2, O2 Mg, C, Zn, Bist du.

Compounds: pure substance consisting of two or more atoms of different types of elements chemically mixed in a set ratio. Can only be decomposed by chemical substance means E. g. INGESTING WATER, CO2, NaCl, C6H12O6.

Mixtures: impure substance including two or more substances in a changing proportion. Possibly homogenous or heterogeneous 2. Homogenous: material with uniform composition and properties through. * one particular phase

* Uniform looks

E. g. Salt water (H2O andNaCl) - Sodium is sencillo – reduce in water – uniform appearance. 2. Heterogeneous: element with variable composition and properties through. * Much more than 1 stage

* Non-uniform physical appearance

Elizabeth. g. Yellow sand and water - Crushed stone is certainly not soluble – won't dissolve in water – a couple of phases will not give consistent appearance.

Big difference between natural substances and mixtures

Natural substances (Element/Compound)| Mixture

Cannot be separated into 2 or more substance by simply physical means| Can be separated into two or more chemicals using their physical properties| Homogenous| Homogenous or perhaps Heterogeneous

Contains a fixed composition| Has varying composition with variable amounts of each natural substance| Has constant property| Displays the characteristics of each part making up the mixture.

1 ) 1 . three or more: The living and nonliving components of the entire world contain mixes * Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and ambiance contain instances of mixtures of elements and compounds Lithosphere:

* The earth's crust that contains many different types of minerals 5. A mixture of these minerals sedimental with crushed stone, rock and soil Element | Great quantity in crust

Oxygen| 46. 6

Silicon| 27. several

Aluminium| almost eight. 2

Iron| 5

Hydrosphere:

* Normal water is the most abounding compound, therefore , oxygen and hydrogen is the most abundant aspect * Sea water includes many mixed minerals just like salt Biosphere:

* Area where living organisms are simply

* The majority of living things are composed of cellular material which contain complicated carbon compounds, such as sugars, fats and proteins Element| Abundance

Oxygen| 60

Carbon| 21

Hydrogen| 11

Atmosphere:

* Part of a blend of gases above the earth's area * Nitrogen and o2 are the many abundant fumes in the atmosphere Gas| Formula

Nitrogen| seventy five. 3

Oxygen| 23. you

Argon| 1 . 3

2 . 1 . 1: Although the majority of elements are simply in blends on Earth, a few elements are found uncombined * Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an factor and the probability of its existing as an uncombined aspect...

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